January 2022


High-concentrate feeding can induce subacute ruminal acidosis, which leads to mammary tissue injury in dairy cows. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of high-concentrate feeding on STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1)/ORAI1 (Orai calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1)-mediated inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), and apoptosis in the mammary tissue of dairy cows. A total of 12 healthy mid-lactating Holstein cows of similar weight were randomly allotted into the following 2 groups: a high-concentrate (HC) group (concentrate:forage = 6:4) and a low-concentrate (LC) group (concentrate:forage = 4:6). The trial lasted for 3 wk. After the feeding experiment, rumen fluid, lacteal vein blood, and mammary tissue samples were collected. The results showed that the HC diet significantly increased blood lipopolysaccharide levels, decreased ruminal pH, and upregulated the concentrations of Ca2+ and proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and the enzyme activities of caspase-3, caspase-9, PKC, and IKK. The upregulation of STIM1, ORAI1, PKCα, IKKβ, phosphorylated-IκBα, phosphorylated-p65, TNF-α, and IL-1α proteins in the HC group indicated activation of the STIM1/ORAI1-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway compared with that in the LC group. The HC diet also induced ERS by increasing the mRNA and protein abundances of GRP78, CHOP, PERK, ATF6, and IRE1α in the mammary tissue. Compared with the LC group, the mRNA expression levels and protein abundances of caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9, and BAX were markedly increased in the HC group. However, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Bcl-2 were significantly decreased in the HC group. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the HC diet can activate the store-operated calcium entry channel by upregulating the expression of STIM1 and ORAI1 and induce inflammation, ERS, and apoptosis in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.

Meijuan Meng, Lairong Wang, Yan Wang, Wan Xie, Guangjun Chang, Xiangzhen Shen